This article is about beekeeping and bee winter survival in Ireland. However, it also cites some European studies regarding queens. The two most applicable to Wisconsin are:
1) Locally raised queens have a longer survival than purchased queens; an average of 83 days longer.
2) It is better from a winter survival standpoint to re-queen in mid-summer. Re-queening during late summer or early fall is not as successful in getting the hive through winter.